Culture: a growing “soup” of microscopic organisms and the nutrients they need to survive.
Nematode: a worm with an unsegmented cylindrical body that often narrows at each end.
The Nervous System: a network of nerve cells that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
Tissue: A group of similar cells that do a specific job together. Organs are made of groups of tissues.
Vertebrate: the major division of animals that have a backbone (spinal column) which is made up of several different pieces... more
In response to increased public concern for the treatment and well-being of animals used in research, many new regulations and laws were passed to help protect animals. For example, the Animal Welfare Act in 1966 outlined the minimum standards for the treatment of animals both during and after any research study.
After the passing of the Animal Welfare Act by the United States, the United Kingdom passed a very similar law, called the Animal Scientific Procedures Act (ASPA). This new law was passed in 1986.
Compared to the guidelines put in to place by the United States, ASPA provided stricter guidelines on how to treat animals. Central to ASPA was the concept of the three R's:
The three R's have become central to the current ways of understanding and preserving the ethical treatment of animals in research. You can find more information on these guidelines here.
Additional images via Wikimedia Commons. Image of C. Elegans worm by Heiti Paves.
Patrick McGurrin and Christian Ross. (2016, December 04). The Three R’s for Animal Treatment and Well-being. ASU - Ask A Biologist. Retrieved September 21, 2023 from https://askabiologist.asu.edu/animal-research-regulations
Patrick McGurrin and Christian Ross. "The Three R’s for Animal Treatment and Well-being". ASU - Ask A Biologist. 04 December, 2016. https://askabiologist.asu.edu/animal-research-regulations
Patrick McGurrin and Christian Ross. "The Three R’s for Animal Treatment and Well-being". ASU - Ask A Biologist. 04 Dec 2016. ASU - Ask A Biologist, Web. 21 Sep 2023. https://askabiologist.asu.edu/animal-research-regulations
According to the rule of replacement, scientists should avoid using vertebrate animals, like fish or lizards. Instead, they should use invertebrate animals, like the C. elegans worm shown here.