Big Big Bugs close up, partly illustrated image of an insect face
Written by: Danika Painter
Illustrated by: Michael Hagelberg

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Ambient: description of immediate environmental conditions including levels of sounds, light, air, and temperature.

Feasible: something that can be done easily or is conveniently. Something that is likely or probable.

Fossil: the hardened remains, or an impression of remains of an organism that existed in a past geological age... more

Genus: a biology ranking between the family and the species that taxonomists use to classify living organisms... more

Hypothesis: a possible reason or explanation for an observation.

Myth: a story not based on fact or a natural explanation. Often dealing with supernatural beings or events.

Paleozoic: period (era) in geological time from 544 million to 230 million years ago... more

Trachea: in animals such as humans, a large tube that is the main passage for moving air to and from the lungs. The windpipe. In insects fine tubes that move air directly to tissues... more

Big Bugs News headline

Is this a fantastic headline, or could we see giant insects today? It's not likely, but for years movies have used these mythical images to scare and entertain millions. These enormous insects depicted in bad B movies exist mostly in the realm of science fiction. However, insects of giant proportions really did exist 300 million years ago. They were not as big as dump trucks, but some were many times greater in size than those of their modern relatives. How do we know?

Fossils hold the evidence. Scientists know that dragonflies with wing spans as wide as a hawk’s and cockroaches big enough to take on house cats lived during the Paleozoic era (245-570 million years ago). At the same time, mammoth millipedes longer than a human leg skittered across prehistoric soil. Hundreds of different huge species evolved during the late Paleozoic era. All of this was happening just when the first dinosaurs appeared. Soon after the giant insects disappeared.

Comparison of modern day dragonfly and paleozoic dragonfly

300 million years ago insects similar to the modern day dragonfly had wingspans up to 65 centimeters (cm). Meganeura, a genus related to modern day dragonflies, had a wingspan as wide as a Sharp-shinned Hawk we see flying today. By comparison the largest dragonfly today lives in Costa Rica and has a wingspan of 19 centimeters (cm).

Mystery of the Disappearing Bugs

These ancient giant insects fascinate Jon Harrison. A physiologist and professor of biology at Arizona State University. Harrison wants to know why giant insects evolved, and why they disappeared. The answer may lie in how insects breathe. Harrison and his laboratory are busy studying how the breathing of modern insects affects their body size. They are finding that, because of the way insects are built, higher oxygen levels usually means bigger insects!

Take a Deep Breath

Geological Timeline - Giant Insects

Before the dinosaurs, giant insects ruled the world more than 300 million years ago. Click image to view larger.

Recent geologic findings indicate that there was a “pulse” in the concentration of environmental oxygen during the Paleozoic era. In other words, there was much more oxygen in the atmosphere 300 million years ago than there is today. During this period, the oxygen concentration in the air reached 35 percent, almost double the present level of 21 percent.

Interestingly, the rise and fall of atmospheric oxygen also coincided with the evolution and extinction of giant insects. Harrison and other biologists propose that this was more than just coincidence. They hypothesize that high oxygen levels could explain the existence of giant species. The extinction of winged monsters and ginormous beetles after 100 million years may also be the result of decreased levels of oxygen that happened at the same time.

What Else Could Explain the Missing Giants?

Scientists often consider several explanations for a puzzling observation like super-sized insects. Harrison points out that while there is good evidence to support the hypothesis that a prehistoric pulse in oxygen caused evolution of giant insect, there is no direct evidence. There are no living giant insects, or fossils of their tracheae. As a result, biologists are forced to study the next best thing: related insects still alive and crawling and flying today. A convincing test of the oxygen pulse hypothesis will depend on evidence from studies on many of these insects.

Cast of an original fossil of a Meganeuridae compared with modern day dragonfly (upper right).

Scientists have found fossil records of giant insects related to dragonflies. This is a cast of a fossil Meganeuridae. This insect genus lived 300 million years ago and could have wingspans up to 2 feet. The image in the upper right is the size of a modern day dragonfly. Click to view larger.

This takes time. Harrison and his students are contributing to the effort. “Our work is important because it is the first research I am aware of to experimentally test this hypothesis,” he says. But until he and others produce the necessary data, Harrison’s good scientific sense requires him to consider other possible explanations. “There has been a lot of ‘gigantism gone extinct’ in other groups,” he explains. Some well-known examples are the dinosaurs and the elephant-like mastodons of the Pleistocene era. In these groups, evolution has not been linked to atmospheric oxygen levels, Harrison explains. “Obviously, there are other environmental or ecological reasons for gigantism and gigantism gone extinct,” he adds.

Paleozoic insects may have been able to use other mechanisms, such as respiratory pumps, to increase airflow in their tracheae. If so, giant species could have maximized their ability to breathe even in low oxygen environments. Ecological factors also could explain the pattern of prehistoric gigantism. For example, some insect biologists favor the idea that giant Paleozoic insects were successful because they were less likely to be eaten. Their massive bodies might have made them more powerful fighters, or made them too big to be considered feasible prey. Another possible explanation is that increases in ecological diversity may have simply diversified body size options for insects. Being “giant” was just one of the alternatives.

This story was originally published in ASU Research Magazine - Fall 1991 issue. Some content has been updated and additional images developed for Ask A Biologist. Meganeuridae fossil image from Wikimedia.

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Bibliographic details:

  • Article: Big BIG Bugs
  • Author(s): Danika Painter
  • Publisher: Arizona State University School of Life Sciences Ask A Biologist
  • Site name: ASU - Ask A Biologist
  • Date published: June 10, 2012
  • Date accessed: August 14, 2018
  • Link: https://askabiologist.asu.edu/explore/prehistoric-insects

APA Style

Danika Painter. (2012, June 10). Big BIG Bugs. ASU - Ask A Biologist. Retrieved August 14, 2018 from https://askabiologist.asu.edu/explore/prehistoric-insects

American Psychological Association. For more info, see http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/

Chicago Manual of Style

Danika Painter. "Big BIG Bugs". ASU - Ask A Biologist. 10 June, 2012. https://askabiologist.asu.edu/explore/prehistoric-insects

MLA 2017 Style

Danika Painter. "Big BIG Bugs". ASU - Ask A Biologist. 10 Jun 2012. ASU - Ask A Biologist, Web. 14 Aug 2018. https://askabiologist.asu.edu/explore/prehistoric-insects

Modern Language Association, 7th Ed. For more info, see http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/08/
Them movie poster

Them - the 1954 movie about giant ants battling humans in the New Mexico desert. Science fiction today, but 300 million years ago giant insects did exist.

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